How does the eye and glaucoma work?
Glaucoma is a disease that damages the optic nerve of the eye. It usually occurs when fluid builds up in the front part of the eye. The excess fluid increases the pressure in the eye and damages the optic nerve.
The eye constantly produces aqueous humor. As new aqueous humor flows into the eye, the same amount must be drained out. The fluid drains through an area called the drainage angle. This process keeps the pressure in the eye (called intraocular pressure or IOP) stable. However, if the drainage angle is not working properly, fluid builds up. The pressure inside the eye increases and this damages the optic nerve.
The optic nerve is made up of more than one million tiny nerve fibers. It is similar to an electrical cable made up of many small wires. When these nerve fibers die, blind spots develop in your vision. You may not notice these blind spots until most of the optic nerve fibers have died. If all the fibers die, you will go blind.